skip to Main Content

Phonemic Awareness Interventions for Tier 1 and Tier 2 Instruction

by Lynn M. Edwards, PhD

A common cause of student reading difficulties is inadequate mastery of foundational reading skills such as phonemic awareness (Kilpatrick, 2016). Phonemic awareness is an essential building block for helping students to understand the alphabetic principle which in turn sets the stage for learning to read (Keesey, Konrad, & Joseph, 2015).

What is Phonemic Awareness?

I’ve written before about the importance of phonemic awareness, which refers to the ability to identify and manipulate sounds (phonemes) in spoken words (Ehri, 2004; National Reading Panel, 2000). A child who has developed phonemic awareness can easily recognize that spoken words can be broken down into smaller parts of sound called phonemes. For example, when asked to identify the sounds in the word, cat, a child should be able to identify that there are 3 phonemes in the word cat, including /c/, /a/, /t/. In this example, the child is able to hear, recognize and isolate each of these phonemes and recognizes that these individual sounds make up the word cat.

Why Focus on Phonemic Awareness?

We know that effective reading instruction in early elementary grades (e.g, Kindergarten through grade 2) includes explicitly and systematically teaching phonemic awareness and letter-sound correspondence (National Reading Panel, 2000; Wagner, Torgesen, Laughon, Simmons, & Rashotte, 1993). Phonemic awareness instruction helps students acquire phonemic awareness along with word reading and even comprehension skills (Ehri et al., 2003). Common aspects of phonemic awareness instruction include identifying different phonemes, finding common phonemes in word pairs, blending phonemes to make words, segmenting phonemes of a word, deletion of phonemes, and substituting phonemes. Overall, teaching phonemic awareness skills increases the likelihood that students will master the necessary foundational literacy skills and continue to meet expected reading proficiency goals.

Identifying Students in Need of Phonemic Awareness Interventions

Teachers can identify students in need of phonemic awareness intervention by using FAST earlyReading™ assessment results. Subtests within the earlyReading suite that target phonemic awareness include Word Rhyming, Onset Sounds, Word Segmenting, and Word Blending. These assessments may also be used to monitor intervention progress. One of these subtests, Word Segmenting, is included in the earlyReading screening Composite score in the winter and spring of kindergarten and in the fall, winter, and spring of first grade. The earlyReading Composite includes four subtests and that score can be used to identify students who are not on track (at-risk) for performance at grade level. Then, it is recommended teachers look at specific earlyReading™ subtests to determine specific student difficulties with phonemic awareness. If a student’s score on Word Segmenting is very low, it might indicate a need for phonemic awareness instruction. Teachers can also consider a few common indicators that may assist them in identifying students in need of phonemic awareness instruction or intervention, including students who have difficulty with:

  • rhyming;
  • hearing, isolating, and discriminating sounds that make up words;
  • adding, moving, and deleting sounds in words;
  • breaking a word into individual sounds

If a student only knows a few letter names or sounds, it is also possible he or she may not have mastered phonemic awareness skills and we recommend checking to determine the level of mastery with phonemic awareness. If a student’s Word Segmenting score is a very low number or zero, it can be helpful to conduct an additional assessment with one or more other earlyReading
subtests, including Word Blending, Onset Sounds, and Word Rhyming.

Phonemic Awareness Interventions Available in FAST™

Given phonemic awareness is a foundational skill in learning to read, how can we support students who need to develop it? To meet the needs of your students, Fastbridge Learning® now offers class-wide and small group reading interventions that target phonemic awareness. The interventions are research-based and are aligned with FAST assessments and the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts for grades K-5. The phonemic awareness interventions are available within the Fastbridge Learning®  Training & Resources section of the online system. For each intervention, there is a series of eight lessons to build an understanding of each intervention and when to use it for which students.

The lessons include:

  • Lesson 1: An introduction to the intervention
  • Lesson 2: Standardized administration information with a short video
  • Lesson 3: Whole group step-by-step administration guide with student and teacher materials to use
  • Lesson 4: Small group step-by-step administration guide with student and teacher materials to use
  • Lesson 5: Formative assessment with progress monitoring recommendations
  • Lesson 6: Practice options, including a checklist to monitor intervention fidelity
  • Lesson 7: Certification for implementing the intervention (this section is coming soon)
  • Lesson 8: Resources such as references

Currently, Blending & Segmenting Sounds is available for teachers to use. The objective of this phonemic awareness intervention is for students to increase their accuracy and automaticity with blending and segmenting phonemes in spoken words. This intervention is designed to be used at the whole group (tier 1) or small group (tier 2) levels. For this intervention, the teacher will use the provided word list and pictures to help students blend and segment words with 2, 3, and 4 phonemes. Each student will have a sound mat with bingo markers or pennies to follow along as sounds and words are pronounced. The daily lesson plan involves introducing students to 2 to 3 new words from the word list as well as reviewing some of the same words from previous lessons by following the step-by-step instructional procedures provided. These instruction procedures outline how to prepare materials, explain the activity to students, model the activity and provide guided practice, group practice, and applied practice. Additional accommodations and instructional extensions are provided as well.

Future FAST™ Phonemic Awareness Interventions

We are continuing to develop additional Fastbridge Learning®  phonemic awareness interventions at Tier 1 and Tier 2 levels. By early October 2018, this domain will soon include a sequence of interventions that more closely target individual phonemic awareness skills from easier to more difficult, aligning with the FAST earlyReading™ assessments. Additional interventions will include:

  • Rhyming Words
  • Understanding Syllables
    • Deletion using Two Syllable Words
    • Deletion using Three Syllable Words
  • Understanding Onset-Rimes
    • Onset Sound Deletion
    • Rime Deletion
    • Onset Sound Substitution
    • Rime Substitution
  • Manipulating Phonemes in Words
    • Manipulating Sounds with Deletion
    • Manipulating Sounds with Substitution

Further information will be provided about these interventions when they are available.

Lynn M. Edwards, PhD, is a post-doctoral research associate at the University of Minnesota and school psychologist at an elementary charter school in Minneapolis. Her current work is focused on leading the effort to develop and conduct research for the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) project in collaboration with colleagues and FastBridge Learning.  PSI is a computerized cloud-based instructional software program that will streamline the use of assessment to continuously inform instruction. Dr. Edwards’ primary research interests focus on identifying causal mechanisms of learning and designing effective technology-based instructional systems, resources and tools for educators.

References

Ehri, L. C. (2004). Teaching phonemic awareness and phonics: An explanation of the National Reading Panel meta-analysis. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 153–186). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing.

Ehri, L., Nunes, S., Willows, D., Schuster, B., Yaghoub-Zadeh, Z., & Shanahan, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read: Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250–287

Kilpatrick, D. A. (2016). Equipped for reading success: A comprehensive, step-by-step program for developing phonemic awareness and fluent word recognition. Syracuse, NY: Casey & Kirsch.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., Laughon, P., Simmons, K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1993). Development of young readers’ phonological processing abilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 83–103.

 

 

This Post Has 3 Comments

  1. Maxbet Indonesia
    Maxbet is among the greatest leading igaming providers in Asian countries which has recently been established
    for 7 years and counting. Supplying the best winning odds for just about all gambling members.
    We all likewise have an official license from PAGCOR
    in order that we can market online gambling video games legally in Dalam negri.
    Now Maxbet or perhaps Ibcbet are typically the most popular bookies in Indonesia because these people provide innovative, governed
    and easily available gambling products by way of Maxbet mobile.

    Now Maxbet Indonesia is definitely an revolutionary bookie due to the fact we always introduce the latest on the internet gambling games in addition to our
    team is usually always trying to be able to update the online betting system in order that that provides members along with the best wagering
    experience. The largest chances of successful, the confidentiality associated with member privacy data, and
    secure obligations will also become obtained by people on Maxbet, this particular makes us the
    most used in Indonesia.

  2. Bola tangkas is the biggest city in Asia that has been awarded several times for providing
    the best facilities and services. Bola tangkas has also pocketed several legal betting licenses in several states which make
    it legal to market online gambling. Sbomabos as
    a trusted official bola tangkas agent which was around since 2010 also follows the standards of its official
    service provider. Sbomabos is now an official sbobet logon provider site that provides 24/7 service to all Indonesian online gambling
    users. Sbomabos as a sbobet gambling broker that
    has received official permission from PAGCOR and is also based in the Philippines so it is legal to advertise products
    from our providers. We here provide transaction processing under 3 minutes from promising small to
    large small.

    How to Login to the Sbobet Philippines Site
    Sbobet is an official website that always provides
    updated alternative links so that users can certainly access the sbobet website.
    Today all sbobet sign in information can contact customer service
    from the required sbomabos website. Members who have completed
    registration at sbomabos can follow steps to login sbobet such as accessing the
    sbowin. com site, entering the username and password provided by our cs.
    The particular sbo system also prioritizes member security after logging
    in, for the first time the associate will be asked to enter a new password.
    Members can also change their own username on the official sbo website.

  3. How you can Register for the Userbolavip Account

    To register as a member upon the Userbolavip web site, the method is
    usually very easy, the first step a person have to perform is
    visit the particular official website or through the newest alternative link given by Userbolavip: Bukauserbolavip.
    apresentando

    Via the option link above a person will go right to
    the key page and the upper right corner, click on the
    ‘REGISTER’ button to enter the registration page. Then you will find a page along with several fields of which must be completed with your private data completely and correctly.

    After generating sure that almost all fields are filled in properly
    and correctly, complete the particular registration process simply by pressing the ‘REGISTER’ button which can be at the bottom regarding the registration webpage.
    Within a few minutes you will get confirmation that the accounts you created will be active.

    Userbolavip Online game Login

    After registering, you will acquire an individual can ID and
    password which a person can use in order to login the sport.

    To do thus, go back to the principle webpage from the userbolavip web site including the leading you will discover two columns that will
    the username in addition to password.

    Enter your own username and pass word in both fields and press typically the sign in button alongside
    them. Once successful, you may be able to access internet gambling online games provided
    by Userbolavip.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back To Top